International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types: (1) bilateral investment agreements and (2) investment agreements. A bilateral investment agreement (BIT) is an agreement between two countries on the promotion and protection of investments made by investors of the countries concerned in the territory of the other country. The vast majority of AIIs are BITs. The category of contracts with investment rules (TIPs) includes different types of investment agreements that are not NTBs. Three main types of PNT can be distinguished: 1. global economic contracts, which contain obligations usually found in THE ILO (e.g. B a free trade agreement with an investment chapter); (2) contracts with limited investment provisions (e.g. B only those relating to the creation of investments or the free transfer of investment funds); and 3. Contracts that contain only “framework clauses”, such as.
B cooperation on investments and/or mandates for future investment negotiations. In addition to AIIs, there is also an open category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It includes several binding and non-binding instruments, such as model agreements and drafts, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organizations and others. International tax treaties focus on the elimination of double taxation, but may at the same time address related issues such as the prevention of tax evasion. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), which is the single window of the United Nations (UN) for the consideration of issues relating to IIAs and its development dimension, is one of the main organisations dealing with the development dimension of IIAs. The organization`s IEA program supports developing countries in their efforts to participate effectively in the complex system of investment regulation. UNCTAD provides capacity-building services, is widely recognized for its research and policy analysis on CIAs, and provides an important forum for intergovernmental discussion and consensus on issues related to international investment law and development. The guidelines are “a confirmation of the fundamental principles of investment, which were defined by enterprises in 1972 as essential conditions for further economic development.” The ICC hopes “that these guidelines will be as useful to investors as to governments in order to create a more favourable environment for cross-border investments and to better understand their shared responsibilities and opportunities to realise the enormous potential of cross-border investments for joint global growth”. The 2012 update “retains the proven construction of the 1972 guidelines and separately defines the responsibilities of the investor, the home government and the host government.” In addition, an update has been added as part of the update for configuration and context, and chapters on labour, tax policy, competitive neutrality and corporate responsibility have been updated or added.
 Statistics show the rapid expansion of CEWs over the past two decades. By the end of 2007, the total number of AIIs had already exceeded 5500 and increasingly included the conclusion of PDOs with a focus on investment issues. As the types and contents of IIAs are increasingly diverse and almost all countries are involved in the conclusion of new IIAs, the global IIA system has become extremely complex and difficult to pin down. . . .