Employers, businesses and employers` organisations are the other main players in collective bargaining, but much less is known about their membership and representation in OECD and candidate countries. In particular, representativeness is very difficult to assess: official and current statistics on the number of workers surveyed, unlike the number of related companies, are very limited and partial and are often based only on self-reported data. The possibility for companies to belong to several employers` organisations also poses other difficulties of precise evaluation. Based on the available information, Chart 4.4 shows the proportion of private sector employees working in companies affiliated with an employer organization. On average, the density of employers` organisations in the 26 OECD countries for which data are available is 51%. Like trade union density, the density of employers` organisations varies widely in OECD and candidate countries: it is very low in Central and Eastern European countries, Korea and Turkey, while it can reach 80% in the Netherlands, Sweden, Belgium and Luxembourg (and 100% in Austria due to the forced membership of all companies). In most OECD countries, outside Europe, employers` organisations represent the interests of the economy (i.e. the lobby and the voice), but do not negotiate collective agreements, most, if not all, negotiations at the enterprise level. In Portugal (see OECD, 2017b for more details and a provisional review), successive reforms between 2011 and 2015 initially froze extensions of collective agreements and granted them only if the signatory employers` organisations met certain criteria. The duration and ultra-activity of collective agreements have been reduced. The company committees of at least 150 employees (compared to 500) were allowed to negotiate enterprise-level agreements on the mandate of the unions and the possibility for employers to temporarily suspend a collective agreement in the event of a crisis was introduced. 22.214.171.124 Training may be provided to certain staff members or sections. So-called employees must take this type of course if and to the extent indicated by management, even if this is not intended for normal working hours.
Management must distribute training and training in the most equitable way possible among workers. 18. ←. In the case of Italy, there is a tension between the rules established autonomously by the social partners, which define a hierarchical relationship between the levels of negotiation, and the case law that an agreement at the enterprise level can always deviate from sectoral agreements. Coordination is the second important pillar of collective bargaining systems. Coordination refers to the “degree in which small players consciously follow what important players decide” (Kenworthy, 2001 and Visser, 2016a). Coordination can be provided between bargaining units at different levels (for example. B when agreements at the sector or enterprise level follow guidelines established by high-level organizations or through a social pact) or between units at the same level (for example. B if certain sectors or companies follow the standards set in another sector/company). About 80 million workers are members of trade unions in OECD countries and some 155 million people are covered by collective agreements that are concluded at the national, regional, sectoral, professional or professional level.